Education, The Tavistock Institute and ‘America’s Best Kept Secret’

June 28, 2016


In updating a monograph on The Manchester Method recently, I came across an historic document written about the Tavistock Institute. Its rhetoric about this evil threat to America, and to all its most cherished values, persists in articles written today.

Read the rest of this entry »


Press Release: Author completes fourth book in a year

April 11, 2016


 Picture of Tudor

 Your Editor prepared this Press Release for the anticipated publication of Tennis Tensions which has been delayed by the curious story of Jose Mourinho’s departure from Chelsea.



Woodford-based author Tudor Rickards completed a third edition of his business textbook in 2015. He then decided to try his hand at self-publishing. In May 2016 he will produce his fourth self-published book.

“When I retired from the University of Manchester, I had got into the habit of writing every day for business executives, using news stories about leadership. I decided to keep going, but publishing for myself.

My first self-published book, The Manchester Method, was written for business mentors, but then I started concentrating on sports leadership. My first sports book described my experiences at the Northern Tennis Club Didsbury, over the last years.

Then the fascinating story of Jose Mourinho at Chelsea resulted in Mourinho Matters, partly because one of my students is a well-known Premier League football player.

That held up publication of Tennis Tensions, for which I studied forty matches at the US Open to see whether top athletes suffer from the same sorts of anxieties as club players. “



Tennis Tensions is scheduled for publication in May 2015.  Inspection copies are available for review purposes. Professor Rickards is also available for interview.

Taking Tough Decisions: A creative problem-solving approach

April 15, 2015

Tudor Rickards and Rebecca Baron

Louis van GaalTaking Tough Decisions: A creative problem-solving approach was prepared as an experiential  workshop conducted within the Fifth National Medical Leadership conference 17th April 2015 at the Macron Stadium, Bolton

The workshop format offered participants an opportunity to examine and to share tough decisions and reflect on how to deal with them. The ‘split half’ design meant that we presented twice, each to half the delegates, and simultaneously with a presentation on  the increasingly well-known approach on Managing your Chimp .

Our own contribution drew on the experiential learning approach developed at The Manchester Business School, and particularly in workshops around the world for executive MBA courses since 2007.  A key aspect is encouragement for the process of creating and reflecting on  ‘living cases’ from current leadership events from various sources, including sports management, business, and everyday social situations.

Further details can be found in a recent post

This post provides pre-workshop material primarily for participants, and will be concluded after the event.

Key aspects

As we designed the workshop, we wanted to find a way of combining the MBS approach with the anticipated wide range of issues relevant to participants. We settled for a format which invited discussion around:

Conceptual map making

Leader as management of dialog and management of meaning

Dialog and dilemmas [when you engage with others who have different ‘mind maps’]

Engagement through creating and exploring ‘living cases’

Skills for dealing with tough decisions creatively [yes and…; insights through lateral thinking approaches, perception is a map not the territory]

Supporting visuals

Our supporting visuals can be seen here as Taking tough decisions

To be concluded

Concepts and Pragmatism: Applying original thinking in a Manchester Method way

February 12, 2015

HAKAM1624_1 (2)

Vikram Madineni

Applying theory to find practical solutions in professions like engineering is well-known.  The Manchester Method approach in the field of management comes from  applying the learning in one’s professional life and, leveraging trust and current experiences.


The Global MBA program at Manchester Business School gave me a platform to self-reflect and grow professionally, to learn the importance of communication and also to shape my future goals and ambitions

Personal Growth

I encountered many of the nuances of business management early in my professional life, but at first I had a hard time relating to decisions being made from a professional and personal perspective.

The dynamic nature of the Global MBA course work, diversity of people, need for team collaboration and applying theoretical frameworks to understand “why” and “how” part of the decisions, all have shaped my personal growth over the last 18 months.

The focus on teamwork is paramount and there is a regular need to improvise based on dynamics of team members. I have dramatically improved my group negotiation and implementation strategies. For this, I owe much to the information exchange with other students in multiple workshops across countries and partly to the self-reflection of my creativity reports.

By using theoretical frameworks of economics, marketing, operations, accounting, and leadership when answering individual assignments, I gained a better perspective of various factors influencing decisions being made within my own organization.

Manchester Method

The emphasis on “managerial oriented” application of concepts rather than academic discussions has been advocated in all courses. I got a better understanding of the principle after receiving feedback for my final marketing assignment. My thorough research was appreciated, as was required in an MBA course, but both examiners explained the importance of also arriving at practical solutions that could benefit the company.

In the induction session the program director [mention name] explained the importance of networking, teamwork, the value of working within a diverse cohort and building relationships.

This has been an enriching experience and it has helped me to manage assignments and projects in a more efficient and productive fashion.

Chartering the future – Social Responsibility

I dreamed of being an entrepreneur since I graduated from college and I got a new perspective after reading an inspirational book about the TOMS company written by Blake Mycoskie – Start Something That Matters.

I chose the book for my leadership assignment and published a post about TOMS and its CSR in Leaders We Deserve.

Around the same time, I became aware of the amazing work being undertaken by the Gates Foundation and within my own company, Ingersoll Rand, in providing opportunities to serve a social cause. I was inspired and motivated to change but also identified the lack of management experience in handling strategy or operational needs of social organizations.

Johnson. W (2012), “Disrupt Yourself”, discusses the concept of disrupting oneself to stay ahead or charting one’s profession career.

I embraced the opportunity to do the Global MBA program, and over the last year I have opportunities to learn and understand the business system at a functional and a strategic perspective. As I progressed through my learning I gained knowledge in operations excellence and insights of marketing for a non-profit organization.

I had to do considerable amount of research on TOMS for my leadership and marketing course assignments. I gained a deeper understanding and need to embrace social responsibility; and also the power of words, advertisement of conscious consumers, and era of storytelling successful companies. I discussed this concept with our company’s marketing team to rethink branding and customer connectivity. We needed a story; a story that connects with our customers and makes them our passionate advertisers.

Original Thinking Applied

One of the most enjoyable workshops and one that I can vividly recall is the Accounting workshop! Marketing, Operations, CIB and all other workshop assignments helped me to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamentals but Accounting was very focused on one particular aspect of the organization or situation. I probably have never spent 6-8 hours analyzing just 3 sheets of papers before, the Balance Sheet, Cash Flow and Income Statements! It was a workshop in which I truly realized the potential of applying the thinking – understanding what financial ratios really mean, challenging whether the numbers are really telling a true story, what should the company or an investor be looking for.

Our group spent hours endorsing and debating each other perspective. I remember our professor being intrigued by the new metrics and ratios that we identified and how we linked them with a balanced score-card strategy. The level of analysis and realization of the importance of certain metrics all helped my immensely in applying the learnings in the business simulation course.

The business simulation course was another opportunity to bring all our learnings together for the first time and I enjoyed the challenge of managing and competing against my peers. Managing finances, building on equity, improving net margins, borrowing cheaper capital were all a result of application of deep analysis of the company’s financial statements and the market. This was also an opportunity for us to apply the concepts of strategy, adapt dynamically to market changes and build a road map for the future profitability. This gives me confidence in my ability to manage business operations in certain roles like strategic integrator, program manager in companies like TOMS or Gates Foundation.


My perspectives on definition of leadership have gradually changed over the course of my student and professional life. Growing up, my father was a leader for me; responsible, knowledgeable, humble and passionate. I inculcated lot of those values and owe my growth to his leadership skills as a parent. My views on leadership skills expanded during my career at Ingersoll Rand while working with my peers and my manager. We were now in a dynamically changing environment and it was educating to understand the need for a leader to find a “balance” – compassion and setting expectations, leading and allowing to lead, teaching and allowing to learn and most important of all humility and approachability.

The Manchester MBA program has expanded my horizon further on leadership traits and I was introduced to the concept of Servant Leadership. The ability to build a vision and then inspire and influence people to adopt and engage is truly a remarkable skill set. In this era of social consumerism the ability to reach out to people who are remote and influence their decisions is a differentiating attribute of the new generation leader.

The new era of conscious consumers and employees is suited in supporting and associating with a leader who is empathetic and is committed to social responsibility.



February 4, 2015

Tudor Rickards & Susan Moger

University of Manchester, Manchester, England


Upsalla Creativity DayKey Terms:  Creative leadership, Creativity, Leadership, Team effectiveness, Bruce Tuckman, Benign Structures, The Manchester Method, MPIA, TFI


The post is offered as an extended research communication with formal reference citations. It is based on a presentation given at The Advanced Seminar Series, University of Upsalla, Upsalla, Sweden, [3rd March, February 2009].   It extends Bruce Tuckman’s well-established stage model of team development. Creative leadership is suggested as producing new routines or protocols designated as benign structures which help teams progress through two barriers to team development. The first is at Tuckman’s storm stage, (a behavioural barrier), and the second a barrier at the norm stage (a norm-breaking barrier).

To gain an understanding of creative leadership it is helpful to examine briefly the wider fields of creativity and leadership, before addressing the specific focus of creative leadership at the level of organizational teams. Creativity and leadership have been constructs which have attracted a great deal of attention, much of which exists in relatively loosely connected bodies of work across a range of professional and scholarly domains. Creative leadership, the region of investigation common the both, is relatively unexplored.

 Multi-definitional features of  creativity and leadership

Leadership and creativity  have both been regarded as constructs suffering from inadequate definition. More precisely, each has acquired a plethora of definitions, with no unequivocally accepted one, up until present times.

Stogdill (1956) in his review of leadership, and particularly through his celebrated handbook (1974) drew attention to this embarrassment of definitional riches. This was as part of his influential attack on leadership research at the time, and the dead-end toward which he believed it was heading. Stogdill is widely accepted as changing the course of leadership research from the dominance of trait studies (Bryman, 1996; Yukl, 1999), without resolving definitional difficulties (Rickards & Clark, 2005).

Similar definitional complexities can be found in the literature of creativity. Rhodes (1961) had made an early attempt to integrate the multiple and disparate definitions in the literature, into a taxonomy based on the four components of person, process, product and press. Later, Magyari-Beck (1993) suggested that creativity as a multi-level phenomenon could be further structured into levels of individual, group, organization, and culture.

Scholarly interest has not resolved the definitional issue (Isaksen, 1987; Mackinnon, 1978; Sternberg & Lubart, 1996; Rickards, Runco & Moger, 2008). Boden (1994, 2008) has also pointed out a similar lack of clarity and an abundance of definitions of creativity.

The overlap of creativity and leadership literatures

One complication that has contributed to the definitional problems in creativity and leadership research is the wide range of professional and academic fields in which they are studied. Both concepts have attracted psychologists, social and organizational scientists, decision-theorists and educationalists. However, only a small proportion of these have shown interest in both creativity and leadership. These would include Amabile et al, (1996); Basadur, (2004); Mumford, (2000); Puccio, Murdock, & Mance, (2007); and Rickards & Moger, (1999a, 2000)

 Creative leadership is doubly difficult to characterize

Attempts to define creative leadership inevitably retain the complexities associated with the two primary concepts. Unsurprisingly, the integration of leadership and creativity into remains an important and challenging area of study.

In this contribution, we concentrate on a relatively small region of the territory, while attempting to draw a conclusion about the broader implications for creative leadership. We confine our study to leadership processes operating in project teams. If leadership and creativity are considered as overlapping domains, our territory is that of the project team leader. This draws on a sub-set in the creativity literature of work on creative problem-solving structures, (Parnes, 1992; Basadur, 2004; Isaksen, Dorval, & Treffinger, 2000, Rickards & Moger, (2000); Puccio& Capra, (2008) and in the leadership literature the sub-sets of team leadership (Ancona and Caldwell, 1992; Kimberley & Evanisko, (1981); Manz & Sims, 1992; Mumford, 2000) and facilitative and trust-based leadership (Rickards & Clark, 2007).

The conceptual basis of our two barrier theory of teamwork

‘We propose that theories of project team development and of creativity can be integrated into a new conceptual framework. The framework proposes two structural barriers that bear on team performance, and modifies the well-established team development model of Tuckman. Creative leadership is suggested as an important means of breaching the barriers. Its differentiating feature seems to be its effectiveness in establishing protocols that sustain the creative efforts of team members. We have designated the protocols ‘benign structures’ (Rickards & Moger, 2000: 273).

Background to the MBS studies of creative leadership

A major early influence on our thinking was the work in the USA on techniques for stimulating creativity in teams, reported in Parnes & Osborn, 1992; Prince (1970) and Gordon (1956, 1961). These studies had been providing evidence of numerous empirical applications of the techniques. However, claims that techniques such as brainstorming could stimulate creativity were to become contested among more reflective researchers within the creativity paradigm (See reviews by Stein, 1975; Parnes, 1992; Kurtzberg & Amabile, 2001).

The pioneering American studies attracted interest internationally. In The United Kingdom, researchers and practitioners formed informal networks, at first at a national level, and subsequently internationally (Rickards, 1993, 1994). In the UK, our studies (Rickards, 1974b, 1982) reported that application of a creativity technique helped produce experiential learning and the development of effective modifications to team behaviours or routines, a process described as creative analysis.

The term creative analysis was developed in an examination of creative problem-solving techniques. It suggested that each empirical application of a technique was a situated experience which drew on analysis of prior experiences, and provided a learning opportunity for future experiences. The work can now be seen to anticipate conceptual advances made into situated creativity (Jeffcutt & Pratt, 2002; Stoetzler & Yuval-Davis, 2002).

Early work at MBS  examined the effectiveness of teams of technical professionals seeking product innovations within an R&D department (Rickards, 1976; Rickards & Freedman, 1978). Results confirmed that application of creativity techniques could be a productive way for a team to generate promising ideas. However, we found it difficult to establish the link between the application of techniques and generation of more imaginative product ideas. That is to say, we had evidence that techniques worked ‘sometimes and somewhere’ but the mechanisms leading to enhanced creativity remained obscure.

 The Manchester Method

After the early studies of R&D project teams, our attention turned to studies of teams of business students tackling real business projects for corporate clients.   The opportunity for involvement with such teams was a consequence of taking part in an educational innovation at Manchester Business School (MBS) known as The Manchester Method (Drinkwater et al, 2004).

Each cohort provides approximately twenty teams of MBA students engaged in projects.  Across several decades, approximately 4500 participants in 700 such teams experienced creativity training as preparation for their project work .   By the late 1990s, when executive education activities were added in, ‘over 2,000 work teams from 40 different countries were involved’ (Rickards & Moger, 1999: xi).

The composition of project teams within the MBA programmes, and the activities they experienced have remained remarkably consistent across the extended time-period from the 1970s to the late 1990s (although details of the course and creativity training provided changed over time. This was consistent with the precepts of creative analysis, as learning from experience influenced later course designs.

Most projects were selected as being suitable for a small project team working over a time period of weeks. When projects were substantially larger, the work was shared across teams by splitting up a large project into sub-projects. For example, in a project for UNIDO, (Rickards, Hyde, & Papamichail, 2005), each small team explored sustainability in an industry sector. Collectively, the work produced a diagnostic tool across sectors now in use by UNIDO, for supporting the transfer of technology into its third-world sustainability projects.

From these various studies, insights emerged into the nature of team effectiveness and creative leadership. Informally at first, we also began to collect evidence in a longitudinal fashion of leadership patterns of executives engaged in innovative work (1990s-2000). They were often, but not always, sponsors of MBS projects with whom we had built longer-term relationships.

 Team development and the limitations of prevailing theories

Over time, our experiences encouraged us to seek explanations for our findings in the established theories of teamwork. However, we found difficulties reconciling our experiences with the prevailing orthodoxy of how project teams develop stable performance practices or norms.

In our teaching, as well as our research, we were aware of the influence of the work of Bruce Tuckman on teams and team development processes. According to Tuckman (1965), teams develop through stages (form, storm, norm perform). A subsequent closure or adjourn stage was added later (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977).

One difficulty for us was repeated evidence that some of the teams involved in the projects we were studying were failing pass Tuckman’s  storm stage. This might just have been explained as arising from an extended delay in some groups in passing through the Tuckman stages.  However, even if that were the case, there was another, and more serious challenge to the four stage model. A minority of the teams not only reached the norm stage but went on to challenge and break out of norms.   This seems to be consistent with what might be described as achieving creative breakthroughs in their project work. The Tuckman model had no way of explaining how teams might break out of norms toward new norms of behaviour.

The two-barrier hypothesis

In addressing these conceptual difficulties, we proposed a two-barrier solution (Rickards & Moger, 2001), which is a modification to Tuckman’s stage model rather than a total rejection of it. Consistent patterns of behaviour had been discovered across the hundreds of teams studied. A small proportion of teams struggled to reach any effective result from their work. The majority of the teams achieved goals set them to the satisfaction of the client. A minority of teams performed beyond expectations.

We concluded that the most dysfunctionalteams had been defeated by a barrier beyond which the majority of most teams had been able to pass. In our view this was a behavioural barrier. We were led to that conclusion because the weak teams appeared to be permanently mired in behaviors which seemed to be consistent with Tuckman’s psychological storm stage of team development. The teams that passed the behavioural barrier for the most part behaved as predicted by the Tuckman model, arriving at stable group norms permitting effective functioning.

However, this was not the case in the minority of teams which appeared to go beyond the Tuckman norms of stable behaviour and achievement of pre-established production outputs. These teams passed the norm stage by going beyond the project brief in a creative way which added unexpected value for the client. We suspected that a differentiating principle of the behaviours of high-performance teams was the effective establishment of conditions favouring creativity, particularly by a team-leader appointed by the team.

To summarise: Our findings posed two challenges to the prevailing model of team development. The weak teams posed the question ‘what is happening if a team fails to develop beyond the storm stage? The exceptional teams posed the question ‘what happens if a team breaks out of the performance norms developed? Our hypothesis was that teams were differentiated by two barriers to performance. The weak barrier was behavioural, and defeated a minority of teams; the strong barrier was a barrier to creative or innovative performance, and defeated the majority of those teams passing through the weak barrier.

The two-barrier model offered a rich starting point for exploring how a team leader might be influencing the performance of teams. As our training interventions were intended to facilitate a team’s creativity, we began to look for a deeper understanding of how the practice of creative leadership might explain the observed behaviors.

Creative leadership and benign structures

We began to refer to the leadership practices in the most successful teams as establishing benign structures for creative success (Rickards & Moger, 1999a; 2000). This implied a mechanism through which creative team leaders helped reconfigure the behavioural structures and practices under which team members operate:

 ‘We propose that theories of project team development and of creativity can be integrated into a new conceptual framework. The framework proposes two structural barriers that bear on team performance, and modifies the well-established team development model of Tuckman. Creative leadership is suggested as an important means of breaching the barriers. Its differentiating feature seems to be its effectiveness in establishing protocols that sustain the creative efforts of team members. We have designated the protocols “benign structures” ’ (Rickards & Moger, 2000: 273).

We later extended the concept beyond project teams, suggesting that trust-based leadership and creative leadership shared the capacity to develop benign structures, even using as case examples work on pain-free horse training and horse-whispering (Rickards & Moger 2002).

Much work remains before a satisfactory theory of benign structures can be advanced. Our understanding developed initially in our analysis of the behaviours observed in teams applying creative problem-solving techniques.

It should be noted that in real-life project work, the period in which a team is engaged in such deliberate structuring of creative activity is a fraction of the time spent together as a team. This point is unremarked on in the literature, and illustrates an area of future work in examining how a team engaged briefly with creativity-structuring activities carries over (learns from) such behaviors to influence the broader inter-personal and goal-oriented work of the group.

To illustrate our understanding of benign structures we will begin with the simpler case of how a team leader applying a creative problem-solving structure may influence a team through that structure. This gives the critical and distinctive set of circumstances within which we were postulating that leaders introduced benign structures to a project team, with positive consequences for its creative productivity. Creativity techniques situated in real-life applications are then regarded as emergent products adapted to circumstances through an experiential learning process (Rickards, 1974, 1993).

We refer to the pioneering work of William Gordon in his Synectics approach to stimulating creativity in teams.   Gordon suggested that a creativity technique at the level of an innovation-seeking team might achieve results through a facilitative leader applying procedures which influence the psychological states of team members to permit easier discovery of new ideas. He used the vocabulary of operational mechanisms to describe the procedures, and precepts to indicate guiding principles behind the procedures.  This is an approach which provides a way to tease out the essential features of leadership behaviors which are necessary (if not sufficient) for the introduction of benign structures into group processes.   In any application of a creativity-spurring technique, we may need to assess what principles (precepts) are implicit in the approach, and what structures, routines, or rules are introduced (operational mechanisms).

If we apply Gordon’s classification to Osborn’s celebrated brainstorming approach, operational mechanisms and principles can be seen, although these are not all as easy to disentangle as might be desired. Instructions to the team to ‘, go for a large number of ideas, and build on other people’s ideas’ and clearly operational mechanisms structuring behaviors. The ‘rule’ that ‘quantity’ [of ideas] increases ‘quality’ is offered as an operational mechanism, but it is a rather loosely framed instruction regarding actions, and cold arguably be closer to a precept sometimes referred to as the deferment of judgement principle).

This example demonstrates that the ‘rules’ or structures for stimulating creativity are sometimes quite precise, sometimes less precise. The precepts serve as ways in which variations in the structures can be developed through experience, proposed as a process of creative analysis, (Rickards, 1974).

 Change-oriented leadership

Later, evidence from a group of Swedish workers helped us to an understanding of how the work might be accommodated into the broader literature of leadership. Ekvall and Arvonen carried out extensive studies of project teams, reworking the methodology of the classical Ohio State studies (Arvonen, 2008; Ekvall & Arvonen, 1991, 1994). Their results challenged the long-accepted two-factor model of management influence on team work. Ekvall and Arvonen carried out extensive examination of leadership styles and reported that a third factor was emerging, one they termed a change-oriented style. They conclude that the style had just not been visible under the conditions in which teams were studied by the earlier workers. Rather, they suggested, increased organizational uncertainties had contributed to its emergence. This analysis provided us with a rationale for investigating the third style, which describe as a creative leadership style.

 The MPIA structure and team factors

Might the components within creative problem-techniques provide insights into the nature of a leader’s impact on a team? From this question we examined the most commonly-applied technique we had been developing, which had been derived from many years of experimentation in search of a system with widespread applicability as a teaching and development aid.   The system had originally developed from the Parnes-Osborn technique (Parnes, 1992).

In the 1990s, when we began developing interest in benign structures, we had settled in our work for a four-stage creative problem-solving model, presented by the acronym MPIA. Details of the model and its applications can be found in Rickards & DeCock (1994).

Prior to their engagement with the project we explain to participants that their work will be assisted if they follow principles of creative problem-solving, and structure their work into the four stages of the MPIA structure, namely mapping, perspective seeking, idea seeking and actions.   Also in the early training sessions, teams are provided with opportunities to experiment with applying the system on realistic exercises.

In applying the MPIA, teams consciously engage with a series of processes of information management. Experienced facilitators of creative problem-solving will recognise variations on the Parnes-Osborn system which includes stages of fact finding (akin to mapping); objective seeking (perspectives), idea finding and acceptance-seeking (ideas and actions). There are differences of emphasis in the treatments by different researchers but these are not salient to the present paper, and can be found in, among other published accounts, Rickards & De Cock, (1994) and Rickards & Moger, (1999a)

The MPIA structure helped us to derive suggests team factors which may be influenced by a leader following its stages. These became the focus of much quantification as cited below.

(1)        POU: Mapping suggested to us a process of building a platform of understanding (POU) around the project task.

(2)        SV: Perspective seeking suggested a system which encouraged the development of shared point of view, which we rounded up to a shared vision or common goal (SV).

(3)        IO: The idea seeking stage was refined when we conclude that for some groups generation of ideas without commitment to own them was less effective than groups which moved towards ideas that were owned. This the stage became one of idéa ownership processes (IO).

(4)        CLI We associated the MPIA protocols with a team factor arising because application of each of stages seemed to contribute to a constructive or creative team climate (CL)..

(5)        LFE Our systems model of MPIA indicated the possibility that experience gained through applying the technique fed back into new possibilities for subsequent applications. This gave us a the factor of learning from experience (LFE)

(6)        RES One aspect of the projects seemed to differentiate groups into those which were defeated by unexpected setbacks, and those which transcended setbacks (for example, in having a proposal rejected by a sponsor of client). This suggested the factor of resilience (RES)

(7)        NA This factor arose out of interviews with team sponsors, one of whom suggested that effective creative problem-solving in his experience often required networking skills. We borrowed his terminology of network activation (NA). .

Of the seven team factors we had arrived at, four arose directly from considerations of the MPIA model, and three from our involvement with the projects over an extended time period. [Footnote: strictly speaking the idea ownership factor is a hybrid factor. The operational mechanisms and precepts of the Parnes Osborn and MPIA models drew attention to a team’s capacity to generate powerful (‘creative’) ideas’. Our treatment added the component of commitment or ownership to the factor of idea generation skills]

The Team Factors Inventory

The seven team factors became the focus of empirical testing. After preliminary studies it became possible for us to make claims for an instrument through the use of which the seven factors could be extracted from self-reports (Rickards, Chen & Moger, 2001). This was to become known as the Team Factors Inventory (TFI).  Further testing has been conducted, including studies with Brazilian entrepreneurs (Gimenez, 2006) and Saudi Arabian finance professionals (Al Bereidi & Rickards, 2003).

The broad thrust of our work has been to work with teams on business tasks with minimal intrusion through application of measurement instruments. We have found this requires instrumentation of a minimalist kind. The most widely-applied version of the TFI is one that has retained its items once these were established as providing reliable indicators of the seven team factors. We acknowledge that this by no means ends the pursuit for psychometric improvements and welcome any such studies. Web-based data collection appears to be one promising way of achieving further improvement in factor resolution, while retaining ease of use of the instrument.

Assessing the evidence for the two-barrier model of team performance

There is overwhelming evidence that a minority of teams of all kinds perform ‘beyond expectations’. Furthermore, from the same diverse sets of experiences, another group of teams perform in a disappointing fashion. This group could be said to perform ‘beneath expectations’. The majority of teams seem to fit into those who might be said to achieve but not exceed expectations.   Over a period of a decade of application we have accumulated extensive evidence that a two barrier model is consistent with, and yet strengthens the earlier proposal by Tuckman that teams acquire improved performace over time. The evidence has also received overwhelming support when presented back to teams in survey-feedback fashion.   The next stage in exploring the model is to add convincing quantitatively-based evidence of its validity.

Some years ago we had hopes to establish such evidence from the TFI data that would add strength to the qualitative findings. To date, various statistical manipulations of the database suggest that a three factor resolution into high, medium, and low clusters of teams can be demonstrated. We have hesitated to report these findings, however, as our cluster analyses fail to exclude the possibilities suggested by two factor or higher factor solutions. In hindsight, we feel that the TFI serves as an excellent survey-feedback instrument with high face-validity with respondents. However, the quantitative evidence is too indirect to be taken as more than indicative.

For this, further work is required, with additional (or even different) instrumentation which would probe more directly the nature of barriers to creative performance.   Much the same can be said of the impact of benign structures within the processes of team development. Discussion into the nature of such instrumentation would be welcomed and acknowledged.


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The post is offered as an extended research communication with formal reference citations.

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“What did you do after your MBA?”

February 2, 2015

MBS 2016

MBA Paul Hinks interviewed by LWD editor Tudor Rickards

LWD Editor Tudor Rickards catches up with MBA graduate Paul Hinks and asks about personal development gains since his costly investment

I suppose a declaration of interest is called for from your editor as interviewer. I have been compiling a collection of LWD blog posts about The Manchester Method, an approach to experiential learning of which I have been a long-time advocate. Furthermore, Paul after his MBA became a regular contributor to LWD, so he may be considered a special case (or maybe a convenience sample of one). I may have asked some leading questions, but Paul’s responses have not been edited to obtain the sort of answers I was hoping for.

The interview took place over the period January 30th-31st 2015.

The Manchester Method

TR: Before getting into the wider issues I want to know if there was much mention of the Manchester Method when you did your MBA? I don’t want to claim more than it really is/was. Assuming you heard of it, was it by Tutors? Marketing? Name names.

PH: Before completing my application for the Manchester MBA I attended an information session held at the Manchester campus. I remember ‘The Manchester Method’ was referenced a number of times during the discussion with an emphasis placed on the practical element of the Manchester MBA ‘learning through doing’. At the welcome meeting to launch the programme ‘The Manchester Method’ was referenced again by the Course Director [Professor Elaine Ferneley].

As I worked through the Manchester MBA I began to appreciate that it was more than just words, or some ‘catch-phrase’. The values and ethos are absolutely ingrained in to the personality of the programme.

Reflecting back the Manchester MBA process can be quite a humbling experience. Sure, there’s the academic material, but the practical elements of the programme provoke some deeper questions. It’s really up to the individual to decide how much they want to explore those personal blind spots. If you are willing to step outside your comfort zone the Manchester MBA provides a safe vehicle to reflect and learn more about yourself.

TR:  It would be interesting if you can illustrate drawing on yourself as part of a ‘living case’. Can you draw on a specific example?

PH: Applying MBA material to unstructured, complex ‘wicked problems’ from the workplace has helped to raise my own profile in my organisation.  Earlier this month I delivered a presentation to our International Leadership Team drawing on material from several different MBA modules. The feedback I received was very positive. I felt the academic lens provided credibility to the message I was aiming to communicate.

One week later I used a slightly revised version to deliver the same message in a company-wide all-employee conference call to United Kingdom and Ireland staff. Again the feedback was positive.

I used material from the Manchester programme to highlight how people have different perspectives of the same situation – how they these offer different solutions based on how they understand and perceive their ‘worlds’. Acknowledging this premise, I worked through an academic framework to explain how I saw the problem – the framework I used enabled me to paint a picture of the situation we were all trying to understand and address. My structure helped me to deliver what you would describe as a platform of understanding.

I was pleased with the outcome. As a project team we now have some clear next steps and confirmation of commitment (I believe) from the corporate leadership internationally.

What sort of learning …?

 TR: As you mention the broader MBA I wonder what sorts of learning and change have taken place in your approach at work? And at home Is ‘leading’ a team of young children connected in any way to this?

PH: It’s worth making special reference to ‘The Reflective Manager’ module run by Mark Winters. I felt the material that Mark delivers really challenges individuals to reflect on their actions, and also to reflect in action – the concepts are powerful. It takes time to digest the deeper messages, but there is so much in this module that echo the sentiments laid out in “The Manchester Method” and ultimately helped me question my own raison d’etre.

TR: Mark’s work is much influenced by Peter Checkland, a pioneer in the use of systems theory applied to action research The   MBA was not a process for you that ended with a piece of paper?

PH: Personal growth has always been important to me – it would certainly have been easier to have taken a more reticent view, and overlook the opportunity to pursue Manchester’s MBA. I believe it’s really down to the individual to take ownership of their personal development – it isn’t the responsibility of the firm, or anyone else – it’s down to the individual.

Working through the Manchester MBA started as something of a personal challenge – the process is tough, but it becomes more familiar. You learn to adapt. I started to take time to reflect and examine my own performance. Was it what I expected? Where could I have done better? I learned more about myself and started to measure my own progress in different ways. My personal priorities changed along the way too. my understanding of what a work life balance means to me. This doesn’t necessarily mean spending time relaxing, or going to the gym more. Sure these are important, but I also found researching and reading more deeply into situations was also of greater interest to me than perhaps I’d previously realized.

The challenge is in how best to apply that learning every day in both the workplace and also with my family life.

Linking theory with practice

TR: You like to explore ideas. I notice you refer to new maps such as distributed leadership. Reading and lectures tend to focus on explicit knowledge. Might the MBS approach encourage learning through linking theory with practice. Nonaka and Teguchi have a tacit-to- explicit ‘map’ of this.

PH: I believe our experiences help shape who we are; I see knowledge as the cornerstone to understanding and making sense of those experiences. Nonaka and Teguchi provide insight into knowledge creation which maps back to the discussion about how best to capture and acquire our tacit knowledge and how we can then attempt to codify this knowledge and make it explicit.

‘Learning through doing’ takes concepts and theory and embeds knowledge and learning through practical application. I believe it’s effective. The process is pragmatic. Delegates apply their learning to case material either as an individual or as part of a group. So you are encouraged to read around the subject and more able to challenge and critique everything, before looking ahead to suggest future outcomes.

Since finishing the MBA, I’ve continued to research and read material. I’ve contributed material to the Leaders We Deserve blog. Recently I blogged about Distributed Leadership as one contemporary lens though which we can explore how social media is effective in bringing desperate groups together. I enjoy the process of applying frameworks to real life scenarios.

Personal change

TR: What sort of personal changes might you be aware of?

PH: I believe The Manchester MBA helps you to think more strategically. It provides you with the confidence and insight to defend your point of view robustly and also to be able to challenge others and perhaps build on initial thoughts and ideas in a constructive way. .

I believe I have become conscious of the traits and characteristics that other see in you – and also where your areas of development remain. Conversely you see the other people’s traits, their strengths, how they can contribute. For the record, I do not see the MBA as some guaranteed ticket to a C-level destination or another level of perceived success. It’s an education that provides you with a credible and powerful toolbox which I believe can significantly help your decision-making.

The Manchester MBA also delivered me with a trusted network of friends and colleagues only an email or phone call away. We think in a similar way, I trust and value their opinion and judgement. They’re good contacts and I know they’ll succeed and do well in their chosen careers.

Social media and technology

TR: I know that you think a lot about the emerging world of social media, technological change and so on. Any comments?

PH: I see opportunities for firms to take advantage of social technologies that are prevalent in our social communities and which leverage those technologies more in the workplace.

I’ve found myself reading around the subject and using the MBA material to explore different perspectives around Social Media – where are the gaps in current thinking? Where are the opportunities for change? Mobile Technology is now mature and ubiquitous, supporting developments into ‘big data’ generation. Data privacy is another contentious issue with potential ethical implications. But the associated commercial opportunities are huge.

Those with the ability to mine big data effectively and efficiently will soon know more about our personal preferences than perhaps we might welcome.

These are exciting times – I believe we’ll reflect on this current technology period and see the exploitation of social and mobile technology as a paradigm shift – in the same that we saw computing power move away from the mainframe in the 1970s and early 1980s to the distributed computing model. There’s huge momentum; it’s compounded by a generation that is growing up this social and mobile technologies as their preferred ways of communicating.

Personal development

TR: Looking ahead, are you thinking of more personal development? What issues interest you?

PH: I see technology as continuing to deliver advantage to firms that understand how best to use it for collaboration, team working, the creation and sharing of knowledge. Technology, Business, Leadership, Sport – these are really my main areas of interest. I remember my Managerial Economics module and the emphasis [Course tutor] Xavier placed on ‘interdependence’ – that there isn’t a binary switch that we can flick to provide a clearly defined path or outcome.


TR: Paul, thank you very much. I’m sure you will continue to demonstrate ‘what did you do after your MBA’ as an example of learning through doing.


Image of ‘The New MBS’ is an artist’s impression from 2011. The building work is well underway at the start of 2015.

Paul wrote as an MBS graduate, but we both agreed that the basic principles outlined apply to MBAs more generally. The Manchester Method remains a branded version of the experiential components of MBAs under various titles.

Comments are particularly welcomed for this post.