African Entrepreneurs suffer from venture capital shortage

February 14, 2014

African EntrepreneursLocal Entrepreneurs in Africa are disadvantaged by a lack of venture capital

In an article for Computer World, [November 2013] journalist Rebecca Wanjiku suggests several factors that may be contributing to a shortage of funds for new technology start-ups. There is no parallel with the vibrant venture capital hubs such as Silicon Valley in America or the University spin-off science pars flourishing in Cambridge [American or English versions].

The perceived challenges of businesses operating in Africa as well as the higher costs of due diligence and inexperience of the investors and entrepreneurs in the region have all worked to dampen the growth of venture capital funding for tech start-ups and mid-level businesses on the continent, according to industry insiders.
Local start-ups have held discussions and wondered whether their lack of success in raising big money had racial overtones. Companies run by whites seem to be luckier in securing funds. The problem, however, seems to be more about the perception of inexperience and a lack of contacts than race.
“I don’t think it’s about being white or black, it’s about your network; highly networked Kenyans have an easier time too,” added Erik Hersman, founder of the iHub Nairobi, a co-working space for techies.
“Innovative early stage ventures with the potential to yield high social and environmental impact and requiring less than $500,000 in financing remain the most difficult segment of the SME pipeline to reach,” said Ben White, founder of VC4Africa. VC4Africa is an online portal that brings together 13,000 entrepreneurs, VCs and angel investors interested in Africa. It was kicked off at the annual congress of the African Venture Capital Association in Dakar, Senegal, in 2007. Last year, VC4Africa start-ups secured $80,000 in funding while companies seeking expansion secured an average of $237,000 in funding.
VC4Africa works with entrepreneurs in 40 African countries but the number of start-ups and growing companies seeking funding outstrips the available capital. The lack of in-country funding mechanisms and lack of tech-specific financial facilities from the public sector most likely means that the problems will persist.

Leadership challenges

Leadership challenges abound. The contrast with the developments emerging in China, is stark. A similar sense of the availability of entrepreneurial venture backing is reported in India.


Hollywood blockbusters and the message for Big Pharma

January 6, 2014

AvatarThe business model for blockbusting films is coming under increasing scrutiny. There may be a message for the major drug companies

Last year, [2013] 26 films costing more than $100m each were released by the major Hollywood studios – more than ever before. They are likely to have raked in tens of billions of dollars in worldwide box office revenues as a result. But despite the runaway successes, there are concerns that blockbuster budgets are getting dangerously high.

The business model

The business model works because the large blockbuster is more the visible part of a process than a stand-alone product. The basic plan is to develop a series of movies after an initial demonstrated [financial] success. Each successor is part of marketing campaign now well-routinized of spin-off products and deals.

Only a fraction of revenues come from ticket sales with the bulk coming from television licensing, DVD sales, and assorted merchandising deals. Arguably it is the model for sporting franchises as well.

“There’s eventually going to be an implosion, or a big meltdown,” said Hollywood elder statesman Steven Spielberg in a speech earlier this year. “Three or four or maybe even a half dozen mega-budget movies are going to go crashing into the ground, and that’s going to change the paradigm.”

Spielberg had warned of an “implosion” in Hollywood as In 1980, Heaven’s Gate effectively bankrupted United Artists.

Half full or half empty?

British film academics John Sedgwick and Mike Pokorny have found that blockbuster films become have become more reliably profitable: in the late 80s just 50% of major studio films turned a profit. In 2009 it was 90%. Flops have become rare. Spielberg worries with others who note the changes in the market place. DVD sales are threatened by online streaming services such as Netflix. Studios are seeing profits growing more from their TV interests.

Aesthetic bankruptcy

Others refer to dumbing-down and “aesthetic bankruptcy”. Screenwriting talent is increasingly moving over to television.

Entertainment has flourished on change since silent moves found its voice, and later its glorious in sound and visual transformations. The blockbuster model may well be bust. The challenge to Hollywood is one that also applies to the giants in Big Pharma

A message for Big Pharma?

It is the challenge facing other industries where the early winners face being overtaken by outsiders as the name of the business game changes. Maybe Big Pharma will learn from Hollywood that the days of searching for big blockbusting drugs are over.

What else?

The question may be addressed by the stirrings of interest in new leadership approaches in recent years. The last movement to claim New Leadership was in the 1980s. That involving visions and transformations. Newer ideas are trying to recentre business leadership as utterly concerned with ethics and also with distribution of power and authority. [see here for a more critical view of distributed leadership]. It calls for further rethinking of the ultimate rationale for organizational structures and patterns of behaviour.

We not be able to wait another forty years for such ideas to be applied effectively and globally.


The filing system of the future

January 2, 2014

IT Innovations have made the traditional filing system obsolete. Leaders we deserve offers a glimpse into the future of personal information systems

Filing cabinet [floor version]

Filing cabinet [floor version]

In the early hours of 2014,

In the early hours of 2014, the editor of Leaders We Deserve examined his filing system in anticipation of resuming his labours …

The image reveals the superficial structure of the existing system, post-modern with a hint of bricolage – even if his spell-checker continued to suggest there is a hint of bricklayer rather than bricolage about it.

What’s the sphere?

The spherical object is a word-ball which provides, yes you guessed it, words to help fill otherwise blank spaces in blog posts as and where required. The much-used red dictionary in the background serves a similar purpose.

The elements within the filing system

The system is designed to accommodate books of all sizes, reports, office products, folders, games, IT relics, recycled boxes, tins plus items I would have to examine more closely before I could identify them.

The dynamism of chaos

There is a dynamism of chaotic forms. Their apparent timelessness is defective. [Or as my spell checker suggests, detective].

The chaotic aspect visible in my filing system masks a deeper order. If I produced a time-lapse film it would show the changes as a project progresses. As the project tails off, so the filing system resumes an earlier state

The Filing system of the future

The filing system I have in mind for he future is already taking shape in my mind. It is more distantiated, if I can borrow a term from a lecture by Tony Giddens I attended some years ago. It occupies a different and more virtual space. The floorspace could be extended to the under-utilized area beneath the desk. Some piles of objects could be increased in height by removing irregularly shaped ones thus forming new clusters in office space.

Hyperspace is already beckoning.

My assorted pictures are increasingly tagged for retrieval. My array of student theses is no longer growing as physical and bound volumes. E versions are accessible from the University archives. Increasingly, the textual materials are up there somewhere in the cloud.

Perhaps in Second Life, an Avatar Archivist will soon be able to stack and unstack items, like a zero-hours worker from a Tesco’s in hyperspace.


HS2, the attacker’s advantage, and the decision dilemma

October 30, 2013


A debate continues in the UK over building high speed train connections between London and the regions. An old concept in innovation theory may be useful in examining the decision to act

There has been much debate in the UK over the proposed HS2 link. Some years ago, there appeared to be a reasonable political consensus in its favour. The issue is now clouded. Labour is indicating ‘no blank cheque’ if they regain power. There is opposition to HS2 from those opposed to big government or big technological schemes threatening environmental consequences.

No simple vision

A simple vision to share with the public vanishes if it is not presented as having a key factor. Faster journeys was a simple vision but the more complex ‘making travel nice, fast, safe and economically good value for money approach is much trickier to present.

The result is increasingly unconvincing arguments. Economic justification relies on experts commissioned by protagonists. Most large technological projects come with unexpected extra costs. Other costs might be anticipated but are covered up by those with a position to advocate. Benefits, the other side of the decision dilemma, remain too loosely coupled with costs.

The attacker’s advantage

Pondering on these matters, I recall a simplification offered in innovation theory by a McKinsey consultant Richard Foster. In his book The Attacker’s Advantage [still in print] he presents the change as a shift from one s-curve to another. Using rather simple economic assumptions, it is possible to identify a region over time in which the economic advantages of shifting is compelling. Sometimes there is no such region or window of opportunity.

The attacker’s advantage always struck me as more of a useful conceptual map or thinking tool than a decision-making algorithm. It is better at isolating a more ‘either-or’ decision between two competing technologies. Between, for example, costs to the tax payer and costs to the traveller. Who pays through taxes is a political decision; who pays in travel fares is a commercial one.

Where do I stand?

I stand for a more informed, more disinterested debate. The current efforts of politicians leave me suspicious of there ever being a simple resolution of the decision. It seems more clear that ‘doing nothing’ is accumulating the problems building up within the transport connections between the wealthy commercial South of England and what is crudely classed as ‘The North’ . In this case, the North w includes Watford (gateway to the North), Birmingham (North of Watford), Manchester and Leeds (North West and North East of Birmingham) and Glasgow (very North indeed, no country for soft old southerners, which may have border guards, by the time HS2 is built).

As I mull these arguments over, I reach a few not very startling conclusions. HS2 will not be built without overcoming strenuous opposition. If it is built at all, it will result in unforeseen advantages and disadvantages. And the longer it takes to decide, the narrower will be the ‘window of opportunity’ for an attacker’s advantage.


Not Very Smart Phones: Why George and Ira Gershwin would have foreseen the touch screen

October 22, 2013

George and Ira Gershwin would have foreseen the touch screen, argues LWD blogger William Thompson. They knew the dangers of mocking pioneers for their new ideas

‘They all laughed at Christopher Columbus
When he said the world was round
They all laughed when Edison recorded sound
They all laughed at Wilbur and his brother
When they said that man could fly
They told Marconi
Wireless was a phony…’

How long it is since every up and coming business executive could not be seen without their BlackBerry in hand, with that iconic QWERTY keyboard at the ready to make those all-important calls?
The Canadian-based company that cut 4500 jobs to counter losses has now been bought for £3 billion by a consortium led by Fairfax Financial. The parent company RIM did not see the touch-screen coming. Their CEO Thorsten Heins had made his presentation in Florida to launch new touch screen lifesaving models, but the smart phone community are not convinced, saying the company is too late.
In 2007 they laughed at Apple’s iPhone, asking the question who would pay $500 for a phone without a keyboard? The answer came back – everyone.

Nokia

Nokia, the one-time brand leader in the smart phone business was bought by Microsoft [September 2013] for 5.44 billion euros. Nokia employs over 100,000 people in 120 countries, so the fortunes of Nokia matter to many people. The Nokia operating system Symbian was allowed to become obsolete and outdated compared to Apple’s IOS 6 and now 7 and Google’s Android operating system. Nokia’s place in the smart phone market slumped as the company lost 40% of their share of the market in just over 12 months.

Apple

Steve Jobs resigned in 2011 as CEO of Apple after a period of serious illness. He handed over to Tim Cook. Sadly Jobs later died. As he left the company, iPhone 4 was their top phone; it has now been discontinued. A year is a long time in the smart phone business.

Apple launched their new operating system IOS 7 stating that it was their most secure system to date, yet within twenty four hours it was discovered that their lock screen pin code could be easily by passed. They were forced to issue IOS 7.2 to correct this security issue. Apple sold nine million of its new iPhone models in three days.

Smart Phone CEOs

The CEOs of the smart phone companies are high profile international figures. Steve Jobs’ keynote presentations were viewed worldwide: he was the messiah of the smart phone world community. Anonymous leaders they are not. Most of all they need to be seen as leaders who can see the ship heading for the rocks and make a change of course before collision. They need to see the touch-screen coming and the keyboard going, an operating system dying and another bursting into life, to see the rocks before the collision, to make life and death decisions at the right time in the product life cycle. They need to be chess players who can see three moves ahead.

Editor’s note:

William Thompson writes with insight about the leadership challenges in so-called high velocity environments. Leadership students may wish to ‘road test’ his suggestions, looking for difficulties in “seeing the rocks, and acting decisively”.

See also our earlier blog on GeekSpeak at Blackberry


Zero-hours contracts: the battle between flexibility and ethical management at McDonalds

August 8, 2013

Zero-hour contracts have become a trending issue as companies such as McDonalds balance efficiency against corporate social responsibilities

As happens, one firm is picked on in the media to illustrate a broader issue. In the case of zero-hours contracts, this week [August 2013] the firm is McDonalds.

The article in The Independent notes:

McDonald’s has admitted 90 per cent of its UK employees are on zero-hours contracts. The admission indicates the fast-food chain is potentially the largest zero-hours employer in the UK’s private sector, with 82,800 contracted staff not guaranteed work or a stable income.

The controversial practice requires employees to be available for work when it is required but, as they are contracted for 0 hours a week, employers are under no obligation to use them or pay them a set wage. This allows businesses not to pay staff during quiet periods, but ensures they are available to work at short notice when required.

UK Politicians have reacted to McDonald’s admission by calling for it to offer affected staff a new contract with a minimum hours guarantee.

The concept of a zero-hours contract appeals as an efficiency device. Organizations are able to pick and choose workers and avoid paying for slack times. Indeed, the notion of slack is worth considering. Economists have argued that slack is unproductive time, the enemy of efficiency. Innovation theorists in contrast have argued that slack time is vital for innovation. How can an organization develop a creative culture without time to ‘play with the future’. The appeal of Taylorism is that slack-time is reduced, even eliminated, in theory. Fordism, became its exemplar. Thus, modern management from its inception may be seen as approving the principle of zero-hours contracts.

From a different perspective

From a different perspective, behavioural scientists have long concluded that worker dissatisfaction eventually contributes to other losses in productivity through demotivated workers, militancy, and an increased tendency towards that economic sin, free-riding or exploiting fellow-workers to minimize personal effort.

Zero-hours contracts became politically interesting in the UK this year [2013] as a survey by The Chartered Institute of Personnel Development claimed that a million workers, around four percent of the working population could have such working arrangements.

Interesting, the practice is more common in the voluntary and public sectors than in private industry.

Zero-hours contracts were initially introduced in hotels, restaurants and shops, but their use has spread to the public sector because of spending cuts. The number has reached almost 100,000 in the National Health Service, while new figures show more than 270 government staff are on such contracts. Unison, Britain’s second biggest union, called for them to be outlawed. Its general secretary, Dave Prentis, said: “The vast majority of workers are only on these contracts because they have no choice. They may give flexibility to a few, but the balance of power favours the employers and makes it hard for workers to complain. Not knowing from week to week what money you have coming in to buy food and pay your bills is extremely nerve-wracking.”

Good or bad for workers?

It has been argued that the arrangement suits some individuals. I am less convinced the argument can be extended, as it has become, to entire categories such as students.

Good or bad for employers?

The greater enthusiasm shown in the public sector figures suggests that private organizations are more cautious about the arrangements. I found this unexpected at first sight. Are for-profit outfits more concerned about their workers? Or might it be they are more aware of hidden responsibilities owed to the zero-hours employees, yet to be tested in law.


Glaxo takes hit in China, but these are global dilemmas for Big Pharma

August 6, 2013

Glaxo Smith Kline faces a serious scandal for its business practices in China. There are serious implications for the entire global pharmaceutical industry

Some years ago, I wrote of the dilemmas facing Glaxo as its then chief sought to address criticisms of the gap between corporate actions and its rhetoric of corporate social responsibility. The entire pharmaceutical industry has been a favourite target on the internet under the cover-all term Big Pharma, as long-term profits were threatened, and speed-to-market pressures increased. Various unpleasant and often illegal practices were revealed.

The $400 million scam

Glaxo Smith Kline [GSK] is currently [July 2013] the centre of another scandal through its operations in China. The company is accused of a $400 million scam involving bribing doctors. Eighteen Glaxo employees have been arrested in China. The Chinese authorities claim a network of 700 people has been involved.

The issues are those facing the global giants known collectively as Big Pharma. The current story has a depressingly familiar tone. Last year [2012] Glaxo Smith Kline was hit with a $3bn fine for mis-selling drugs in the US. To date, the city has taken a relaxed view on the affair. Analyst Nils Pratley disagrees, offering three reasons:

First, reputation matters to drug companies and to Glaxo chief Andrew Witty who has been on a clean-up campaign during his five years in charge. After [last year’s fine] Witty said he was dealing with “echoes of the past” and announced his determination that such events would never happen again.

Nobody should doubt his sincerity but the Chinese allegations, if they are proved, would represent a serious failure of management. As far one can tell, GSK put in audit controls that it thought were sufficient for China; it may have been bamboozled by a sophisticated internal scam that was hard to spot without access to private bank accounts and emails. But that would be an explanation of failure, and won’t help GSK on the image front. Witty the unwitting is poor branding when you are dealing with governments around the world.

Second, GSK will probably have to rethink its entire model of doing business in China and other “high risk” countries. That signals disruption ahead as internal compliance controls are overhauled yet again.

[Eventually] in China, GSK will have to arrive at a working arrangement with a central government that appears to have a twofold agenda of running an anti-corruption drive and getting more funding into its dysfunctional healthcare system. Greater opportunity for GSK could emerge from the mess [through lower costs but greater volumes of sale and a better-regulated market.} But, to judge by the current aggressive rhetoric in China, the road to that position could be very long indeed. The story is still developing, but the City looks to be underplaying it.

I have long argued that the ‘pipeline’ model of innovation long-accepted by Big Pharma is in need of rethinking. It is based on a belief that success requires a pipeline of massive proportions through which vast numbers of candidates proceed in a Darwinian series of tests. Commercial pressures have ramped up the size and speed of operations. The temptation to ignore corporate social responsibilities is strong, regardless of the rhetoric and the establishment of CSR departments. Sir Andrew faces a host of leadership dilemmas.


Will you say yes to yesware?

July 31, 2013

Yesware offers a way of managing your emails. As emails increasingly are becoming unmanageable, the product is tapping into a widespread business and social need

The Yesware organization has hit on a great business idea. The videolink here is the corporate webpage

Its software has attracted positive reviews:

Yesware does a few things;

Tracks emails – you can see when someone has read your email, and more (please read their FAQ for info on any limitations)
Custom email templates
CRM Sync – connect email right to your CRM
Analytics – see your email analytics right in Gmail

It’s designed and marketed for Sales. But, “Hello” link builders… meet your new best friend.

I look forward to following its progress. Meanwhile, here is the output of an imagined nightmare scenario for the entrepreneurial organization:

To Yesware

We are a global company with headquarters in the Vatican. Our CEO has encouraged us to use social media to promote our brand and to retain a customer focused approach. Can you help us.

To Yesware

We are a global megagiant. We would like to do no evil but we are increasingly plagued by email messages that sneak though our very expensive spam filters, purporting to come from potential customers. What should we do?

Dear Yesware

Loved the review I read about about you on the web. You should beware of phonies out there wasting your time with spurious emails. I bet you get thousands every day. You should try our proven nukespam system which reaches millions of potential customers every day and filters out time-wasting replies

Dear Yesware

Jime bottle is the pretty much buy our clean no in the Internet. Lowest prices for oval tube boring. Wrapping oral tube supplis.

Dear Yesware

We successfully promote crowdsourcing events. We need a system to avoid infiltration from security forces, hackers and leakers, imprisoned fraudsters, juveniles using parents’ smartphones. Can you help us?

Dear contact [Message from Yesware]

Thank you for your contribution to the overwhelming volume of traffic we received due to recent publicity on the world-famous Leaders We Deserve site. Unfortunately we have become the victim of a service denial attack. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible.


Flourishing organizations and flourishing individuals

May 31, 2013

The Fowler Center at the Weatherhead School of Business has recently published an article on the practice of self-reflection as a means of promoting reflection within an organization. The intention is to support discussion and initiatives for promoting change in the way organizations treat employees in order to create flourishing businesses

LWD is pleased to be able to promote this initiative by summarizing a recent item from The Fowler Center:

The Fowler Center at the Weatherhead School of Business has recently published an article on the practice of self-reflection and promoting reflection within an organization. The intention is to support discussion and initiatives for promoting change in the way organizations treat employees in order to create flourishing businesses

The article, to appear in this summer’s issue of The Journal of Corporate Citizenship,is a prelude to a forthcoming book titled The Flourishing Enterprise: Connecting Sustainability and Spirituality. It will be the final product of the Fellows’ research and careful thought on “the journey to a greater sense of connectedness” as central to business success.

The idea is that if individuals can find and create spiritual contentment in their organization, they can enrich their whole organization and help others flourish as well. The journey to a flourishing organization begins with the self. The Fellows argue that since knowledge workers’ productivity is deeply influenced by the workers’ inner states, cultivating optimal internal states becomes the responsibility of management.

Appreciative Inquiry is an excellent tool to cultivate reflection on the best of what is and to co-create the best of what could be. Created at the Weatherhead School [Case Western University] Appreciative Inquiry is a strength-based approach to whole systems change and is an excellent tool for creating large systemic change.

The Fowler Center hopes that its work will proliferate and create deep meaningful conversations about ways to transform businesses into agents of world benefit–where flourishing individuals create flourishing organizations that lead to a flourishing world.


Drugs, the silk road, and new money-laundering systems

April 16, 2013

BitcoinThe market in illegal drugs continues to keep a step ahead of efforts to control it. New technology is already being applied to complement or replace older practices of money laundering

In researching the rise of new technology banking, I came across the rapidly-growing Bit Coin system. It struck me as interesting to those engaged in nefarious operations such as drug trafficking. I was not surprised to learn that the idea had already occurred to others.

According to its own website

Bitcoin is a digital currency, a protocol, and a software that enables instant peer to peer transactions, worldwide payments, low or zero processing fees, and much more.
Bitcoin uses peer to peer technology to operate with no central authority; managing transactions and issuing Bitcoins are carried out collectively by the network. Through many of its unique properties, Bitcoin allows exciting uses that could not be covered by any previous payment systems.

How does Bitcoin work?

The International Business Times offers a nice explanation of how bitcoin works

April 16-17th

Paul Krugman in the International Herald tribute writes of The fallacy of bitbugism. Further insights were provided in a BBC review.


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